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23 October 2020

Should we stop trading with China?

Britain has seen a huge shift in attitudes to China over the last five years. Relentless coverage of its crushing...

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19 October 2020

UK’s free trade agreement with Japan will benefit Thames Valley

The UK’s first major post-Brexit trade deal, a free trade agreement with Japan, was achieved in ten weeks.  Japan is...

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19 October 2020

Notaries and international trade

Notaries, of whom HCR has three, are all qualified lawyers whose work is recognised internationally and their primary duty is...

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16 October 2020

Webinar: We need to talk about Brexit

Yes, we’re afraid we do need to talk about Brexit. Irrespective of the political landscape and timeframes on certain b...

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7 October 2020

Worried about disputes with Chinese companies?

How to choose governing law and jurisdiction clauses in your contract The best way to avoid trouble is to know...

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1 October 2020

The State of Data

The recent revelation that Zenhua Data, a Chinese firm based in Shenzhen, harvested the personal information of some 2.4 million…

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18 September 2020

UK announces a new free trade agreement with Japan

The UK’s first major post-Brexit trade deal, a free trade agreement with Japan, has been welcomed; the resulting increase i...

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14 September 2020

How can we get new technology out of China? A look at China’s new restrictive export controls

Recent changes to China’s export controls will affect both those trying to buy newly ‘restricted’ products from within China, compa...

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18 August 2020

Brexit is behind us, but the real exit approaches. What should businesses do now?

Boris Johnson declared Brexit was “done” on January 31st 2019 when Britain formally left the EU and entered a transition…

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18 August 2020

英国法律关于“刺破公司面纱”的规定 — 做公司股东也有法律风险

作者:Nicolas Groffman, Connie Lu 联系方式:+44 7816 592 934  ngroffman@hcrlaw.com 根据英国法律,有限责任公司有二个基本原则,分别是(1)自成立就被赋予独立的法律人格;(2)股东仅对公司承担以其投资额度为限的有限责任。第二个原则是对公司股东的重要保护,正是基于这个股东仅承担有限责任的保护,有限公司目前是应用最为广泛的一种公司形式。英国现有超过四百万的有限责任公司在册,并以每年注册五十万个新公司的速度持续增长(2020年8月17日查询结果)。但其实做公司股东也会有法律风险。 刺破公司面纱是有限责任公司独立法律人格的例外情形,它否认了公司股东仅承担有限责任这个原则。一旦决定刺破公司面纱,股东将有可能承担超出其投资额度的公司责任。 有限责任公司独立法律人格的两个基本原则是由英国最高法院于一百多年前在Salomon v Salomon & Co Ltd (1897)一案的判决中正式确定的。在该案中,Salomon先生将自己的生意出售给自己设立的公司,他本人是该公司的大股东。购买生意的部分对价由公司以有价债券的形式向Salomon先生支付。后来这个公司进入破产清算程序,并且清算人发现如果向Salomon先生兑付债券,就不再有资金偿付其他无担保债主。清算人于是向法院请求不向Salomon先生进行兑付。但法院不支持这个申请,认为公司自成立之日即具备独立的法律人格,公司股东仅以其向公司的投资额度为限承担有限责任。尽管是公司大股东,但Salomon先生本人并无任何过错或欺诈,因此他拥有的公司债券理应让他有权先于无担保债权人受偿。法院还强调,任何人决定与公司做交易之前,如果不确定该公司的实力或公司的股东身份,应通过查询公开登记的公司信息来获取相关信息。法院的这个判决正式确定了公司具有独立法律人格的原则,并以仅承担有限责任的方式保护股东的利益,这个原则因而也被称为“Salomon原则”。 正如上文所提到的,刺破公司面纱是公司独立法律人格原则的例外情况。其本质是忽略公司的独立法律人格,越过公司这个屏障找到隐藏于背后的、真正应该承担责任的人,这个过程被称为刺破公司面纱,在中国以及其他一些国家的法律也将其称为否定公司人格。在满足条件的前提下,它要求对公司有控制权的股东对公司行为承担连带责任,而非限于该股东对公司的投资额。由于这个否认公司独立法律人格的行为是对基本原则的否定,所以其适用条件极为严格,除需证明相对人确实刻意利用了受其控制的公司来逃避承担责任、或有阻止强制执行的行为外,还必须证明申请人已穷尽了其他的救济方式。也就是说即使确有股东利用公司来逃避责任的事实,但如果还有别的救济办法,那么法院仍然不会支持刺破公司面纱的要求。 Petrodel…...

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